Post your Malcolm X - References and Allusions work here.


Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee
Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee were a married couple who were well known for their acting, writing, and civil rights activism. Together, they wrote a book detailing their political activism and beliefs about open marriage. Davis and Dee were members of CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), NAACP, and a wide array of many other service groups. So it serves as not surprise that they were named to the NAACP Image Awards Hall of Fame in 1989. The duo were close friends of both Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcom X, Ossie Davis gave the eulogy at X's funeral.


Prince Faisal- Kayla Cummings
Prince Faisal was prime minister at the time Malcolm X came to visit the holy city of Mecca to continue to explore his Islamic beliefs. On Malcolm’s arrival to the country of Saudi Arabia he was considered an honored guest and was invited to a meeting with the crowned prince himself. Not too long after Malcolm left Saudi Arabia, Prince Faisal massed a large group who elected him King of Saudi Arabia kicking his older brother (the previous king) into exile.


http://www.islamicbulletin.org/free_downloads/new_muslim/malcom_x.pdf


Nasser (Egypt)- Adam Bruno
"Gamal Abdel Nasser." Gamal Abdel Nasser. HistoryLearningSite.co.uk, 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.

Gamal Abdel Nasser was the second president of Egypt from 1956- 1970. He helped to overthrow the monarchial army in Egypt and Sudan and helped to modernize the country of Egypt. Malcolm X met him at a meeting of the Organization of African Unity, while Malcolm was representing Organization of Afro-American Unity. Nasser influenced Malcolm by showing Malcolm that racism in any form is bad, and that white and black people need to work together to help all people and to end racism.

Alex Haley - Alexandra Walch
Alex Haley’s full name was Alexander Murray Palmer Haley. He lived from 1921 to 1992. In 1939, Haley entered the US Coast Guard as the first US Coast Guard Journalist. After 20 Years of service, he retired from the Coast Guard and began writing privately. His first major publication was The Autobiography of Malcolm X, which was published in 1965. Haley worked with Malcolm X to complete the work, publishing just months after Malcolm’s assassination. In 1976, his most famous work entitled Roots was published. Haley was known for being a great public speaker, and stops on his speaking circuits were in high demand.
Works Cited:

"Alex Haley Biography." Kunta Kinte - Alex Haley Foundation. The Kunta Kinte-Alex Haley Foundation, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.kintehaley.org/rootshaleybio.html>.

Coin, Glenn. "College, Alex Haley's Family Spar over Malcolm X Letter." The Salt Lake Tribune. The Salt Lake Tribune, 31 May 2012. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/lifestyle/54219300-80/haley-letter-malcolm-grove.html.csp>.


AP English Language and Composition
The Autobiography of Malcolm X


Philip Randolph

Philip Randolph was a leader of the African-American civil-rights movement. He founded and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first black labor union. He led the March on Washington Movement, which led to Executive Order 8802, an order that banned discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. He later led the March on Washington at which Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I have a dream” speech.

I could not find his relationship to Malcolm X anywhere. In fact, he is only mentioned twice, in passing, in the book.

"Asa Philip Randolph Biography." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Advameg,
Inc. 2013. JSTOR. 18 02 2013.

Kwame Nkrumah – Erin Vivirito
He led the Gold Coast (modern day Ghana) into independence from Great Britain, becoming the first leader of Ghana and modeling newfound independence for several other African countries. He supported socialism and was a founder of the Pan-Africanist movement. He first went to the United States for college, becoming inspired by Marcus Garvey and others. Using these principles, he returned to Ghana, forming their first political party. He also launched the social group OAU (Organization of African Unity). One year later, Malcolm X created the OAAU (Organization for African American Unity), inspired by Nkrumah.

Works Cited
"The CIA, Kwame Nkrumah, and the Destruction of Ghana." United Black America. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://unitedblackamerica.com/cia-kwame-nkrumah-ghana/>.
"Kwame Nkrumah Biography." Bio. True Story. A + E Television Networks, LLC., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/kwame-nkrumah-9424127>.
Yergin, Daniel, and Joseph Stanislaw. "Commanding Heights." 1998. Public Broadcasting System. Public Broadcasting System, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://From Commanding Heights by Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw. Copyright © 1998 by Daniel A. Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw. Reprinted by permission of Simon & Schuster, Inc., N.Y.>.

Maruin Worth-Nathan Dotson
Maruin Worth who lived from 1925-1998 was a film producer, screenwriter, and actor who widely contributed to helping make the Malcolm X movie come to the big screen. Maruin Worth also received an Oscar nomination for producing the the 1972 documentary of Malcolm X. Later in his career he also helped contribute to the film Malcolm X that was directed by Mr.Spike Lee himself.

Work Cited:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marvin_Worth

Marcus Garvey- Michael Braun

Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican political leader that was a major supporter of Black Nationalism. He eventually founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, which was a Black Nationalist fraternal organization. The goal of UNIA-ACL is to uplift African Americans, and “[relieve] the sufferings of the Black race”. Malcolm X’s parents, Earl and Louise Little, met each other at a UNIA convention. Malcolm’s father was the president of his UNIA division.

Works Cited:
The Official Website of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theunia-acl.com/>.
Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey>.


Harry Belafonte- Krystle Koe
Harry Belafonte was a famous musician and supported the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s. He was one of Martin Luther King Jr.'s confidants. He provided for King's family. Like many other civil rights activists, Belafonte was blacklisted during the McCarthy era. He when King was incarcerated he bailed King out of Birmingham City Jail and raised thousands of dollars to release other civil rights protesters. He financed the Freedom Rides, supported voter registration drives, and helped to organize the March on Washington in 1963.

Works Cited:
"Harry Belafonte." Wikipedia. N.p., 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Belafonte#Political_activist>.

The Apollo- Brendan Hoskins

The Apollo is a theater in New York City. It is specifically located in Harlem. Malcolm X gave a speech from its stage. It was well known for its exclusivity of using African American performers. The theater was founded in the mid-19th century. The theater is still in use today.

Works Cited:
"Apollo Theater." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Theater>.

Great Migration- Kylie Thompson
The Great Migration was the relocation of African American people from the rural south to the West, Midwest, and North from 1916 to 1970. The African Americans chose to leave the South due to unfair working conditions. When they moved to the North they started working in factories. However, many of these factories took advantage of the African American workers and offered them very poor working conditions and pay. Malcolm X was not directly involved in the Great Migration however his work was about fighting for equal rights for African American people and during the Great Migration many African Americans were not getting equal rights.
MALCOLM X' PARENTS AND HALF SISTERS WERE PART OF THE GREAT MIGRATION. EFFECTS OF GREAT MIGRATION BECOME IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD MALCOLM FINDS HIMSELF IN DURING HIS YOUTH AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD

Works Cited:
The History Channel. "Great Migration." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/great-migration>.


Stauffer, John. "The Great Northern Migration." The Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal, 4 Sept. 2010. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703467004575463852823978496.html>.


PERCY SUTTON- Isabel Park
Percy Ellis Sutton was a civil-rights activist, lawyer, Freedom Rider, and the legal representative for Malcolm X. During his lifetime, he overcame many hardships such as being beaten by policemen when he was young, being arrested for being a Freedom Rider, and being turned away in Texas when he tried to enlist in the war. He was inspired by Malcolm X’s bold moves and represented X even beyond his assassination, fighting for the right place for his body to be buried when many cemeteries refused.
President Obama referred to Mr. Sutton as “a true hero to African-Americans in New York City and around the country.”

Works Cited:
Martin, Douglas. "Percy E. Sutton, Political Trailblazer, Dies at 89." The New York Times. Ed. Margaret Sullivan. New York Times, 27 Dec. 2009. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/nyregion/28sutton.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>.


African Diaspora-Brooke Smith
This refers to the communities of people around the world that have descended from the movement of people from Africa. This phrase most commonly refers to the groups of Africans that were enslaved and then shipped to America on the Atlantic slave trade. Malcolm X was an advocate for human rights. He recognized the members of the African Diaspora who agreed that the world had destroyed their self-respect. He taught those people to take their liberty back.
Works Cited
Davies, Carole Boyce. "Malcolm X." Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. By Davies. Vol. 1. N.p.: ABC-CLIO, 2008. N. pag. Print.
Wikipedia. "African Diaspora." Wikipedia. Ed. Wikipedia. 2001. N. pag. Print.

Black Legion - Adam Baracani
The Black Legion was a white supremacist group that split from the Ku Klux Klan and operated in the United States in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Malcolm’s father Earl Little was a Baptist minister and received death threats from the Black Legion. Earl’s body was then found dead on rail road tracks and it was believed that he was killed by the Black Legion.

"Black Legion (political Movement)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Jan. 2013. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Legion_(political_movement)>.

"Malcolm X." Malcolm X. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h3757.html>.

Uncle Tom Allusion - Joelle Friesen
“Uncle Tom” in the Autobiography of Malcolm X is a reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin: or, Life Among the Lowly, a classic novel about the horrors of slavery. Malcolm X frequently referred to some black people as “Uncle Toms” because of their preference for reform over revolution. Malcolm X tended to advocate revolution; he had more drastic ideas of how to improve the situation of blacks in the country. Malcolm X once said, “Just as the slavemaster in that day used Uncle Tom to keep the field negroes in check, he was the same old slavemaster who today has negroes who are nothing but modern Uncle Toms – 20th century Uncle Toms – to keep you and me in check.”
Bibliography
"Uncle Tom's Cabin." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncle_Tom's_Cabin>.
Younge, Gary. "Don't Blame Uncle Tom." The Guardian. Ed. Guardian News. Guardian News and Media Limited, 29 Mar. 2002. Web. 15 Feb. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/mar/30/race.society>.

Mary McLeod Bethune-Danielle Ludwig
1875-1955 - IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT SHE CAME BEFORE MALCOLM X- SHE WAS NOT HIS CONTEMPORARY
Mary McLeod Bethune was a civil rights leader, political activist, and the first black leader and women to have a statue in Washington DC. The statue commemorates her contributions to the negro community and legacy of civil rights and education. Bethune started Bethune-Cookman College, founded the National Council of Negro Women, and many other remarkable influences on American culture. Malcolm X was an activist for "Black Power" during the civil rights movement; He rooted for black leaders and encouraged African Americans to embrace their black identity, which iss essentially how Bethune and Malcolm are related, as Bethune did exactly what Malcolm X hoped people would do.

http://www.ncnw.org/about/bethune.htm
http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper215.html

The Harlem Renaissance - Christopher Nardone
Hutchinson, George. "Harlem Renaissance." Encyclopedia Britannica: Facts Matter. ©2013 Encyclopædia Britannica, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/255397/Harlem-Renaissance>.

The Harlem Renaissance, also called the “New Negro movement,” had emerged in the early 20th century somewhat ushering the civil rights movement. During this period, national organizations were created to “uplift” African American civil rights into standard social recognition. Many African Americans influenced each other to a broader renaissance, which gave a profoundly important international cast.This served as a foundation for the civil rights movement, and people such as Martin Luther King, Jr and Malcolm Xcreated opportunities for African Americans and gained recognition among white Americans.
IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT HARLEM - A NEIGHBORHOOD IN NEW YORK CITY WAS THE CENTRAL HEARTBEAT OF THIS MOVEMENT. IT WAS ALSO A MOVEMENT OF MUSIC,LITERATURE AND ART. AFRICAN AMERICAN ARTISTS, FOR THE FIRST TIME, WERE RECOGNIZED BY AS EQUAL TO WHITE ARTISTS.
Louis Lomax- Sachi Nagase

Born in the 1920’s, Louis Lomax was an Africa- American author and journalist. He was the first African American television journalist. Lomax wrote much about the civil rights movement and the Muslim world. Lomax interviewed Malcolm X for his documentary on the Nation of Islam, entitled The Hate that Hate Produced.

Griote, Simond. "Life and Times of Louis E. Lomax." Gibbs Magazine. Mirror-Gibbs, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.gibbsmagazine.com/Louis%20E%20Lomax.htm>.

Mecca- Grant Guttschow


Mecca is the holiest city in the religion of Islam. Located in present-day Saudi Arabia, it is the birthplace of Muhammad and the origin of the Quran. Over 15 million Muslims make a holy pilgrimage annually to this holy center, and is strictly off-limits to non-Muslims.

"Mecca." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Feb. 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mecca>


Nation of Islam – Jasmine McDowell
The Nation of Islam was founded by Wallace Fard. They, Black Muslims, had a strict moral code founded on Black pride and nationalism saying that schools, churches, and support networks should be separate. Members read the Koran, worshiped Allah, and accepted Mohammed as their chief prophet. They appealed the African Americans in prison, Malcolm X being one of them. Soon he became a leading spokesperson when Elijah Mohammad, the leader, recognized his talent.
Works Cited
Ushistory.org. "Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam." U.S. History: Pre-Columbian

to the New Millennium. Independence Hall Association, 2013. Web. 18 Feb.

2013. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/54h.asp>.


James Baldwin – Tessa Eckley

James Baldwin was an African-American writer who lived from 1924 to 1987. He grew up in Harlem, worked as a preacher while in high school, spent much of his life in poverty, and wrote many novels, short stories, and plays about the civil rights struggle. His most famous work is Go Tell It on the Mountain, a partly autobiographical work written in 1953. At the end of his life, Baldwin lived mostly in the south of France, as he continued to write and lecture about issues including civil rights and homosexuality. As stated in the foreword, James Baldwin was originally asked to write the script for the movie made about Malcolm X. Malcolm X greatly admired Baldwin, and once stated, “He’s so brilliant he confuses the white man with words on paper.”

Works Cited

"James Baldwin." American Writers: James Baldwin. C-SPAN, 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.americanwriters.org/writers/baldwin.asp>.

"James Baldwin." James Baldwin. University of Illinois at Chicago, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.uic.edu/depts/quic/history/james_baldwin.html>.

X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Comp. Alex Haley. New York: Ballantine Books, 1964. Print.

Grenada - John Ryan Hamilton

Malcolm's ideas served not only to further ideas of the time, but also to inspire later revolutionists. The Grenada revolution in 1979 started when workers and farmers overthrew dictator Eric Gairy. These workers worked much in the same way Malcolm did, by realizing self worth and organizing and acting. Maurice Bishop, a key player in the Revolution, was inspired to go into politics by the Black Power movement in the Caribbean, influenced again by Malcolm X's ideas in the US. The people of Grenada felt similar pain to the African Americans in America, heavily influenced by Malcom X's ideas.


Barnes, Jack. "Impact of Malcolm X on Grenada Revolution." The Militant. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. <http://www.themilitant.com/2010/7421/742160.html>.