The following words are drawn from the Appendix of 1984: "Principles of Newspeak."
Defining them will be your first vocabulary-based collaborative assignment.
One person from each class will be assigned a single term. By the due date (Jan. 20), each entry must contain the following seven parts: Word with part of speech indicated, Pronunciation (sound link), Full Definition(s) + published sample sentence(s), an original sentence with clear context clue, image, and a memory tip. Refer to previous vocabulary entries in WikiWords if you have questions.

2010 Assignment Sheet:

Table of Contents






A

ABSTRACT

Abstract
Pronunciation: ab-strakt
Pronunciation
Full Definition: (adjective) Theoretical; not applied or practical; difficult to understand.
(noun) an idea or term considered apart from some material basis or object
(verb) to draw or take away; remove
Published Sample Sentence: To him hunger was an abstract concept, he never missed a meal.
Original Sentence: The theories and concepts of the human genome and DNA are so intricate and abstract, it seems as if it is a never ending search for medical and scientific solutions.
Image:
abstract-wallpaper.jpg
Memory Tip: When you think of abstract, think of abstract in fine arts, which emphasizes lines, colors, generalized or geometrical forms, etc. Abstract in art can also be very complicated and hard to grasp.

By: Wivine, Chris, and Maggie

AFFIX- verb (used with object)
Pronunciation: uh-fiks, Sound Link
Full Definition:
(transitive verb) to attach physically; to attach in any way
(noun) one or more sounds or letters occurring as a bound form attached to the beginning or end of a word, base, or phrase or inserted within a word or base and serving to produce a derivative word or an inflectional form.
Published Sample Sentence: Affix a stamp to a letter
Original Sentence: I gave my passport to the man at the front counter in hopes that he would affix the visa sticker onto my passport.
Image:
affix.jpg
Memory Tip: Affix has the word "fix" within it. To "fix" something into place would mean to fasten it securely, like what happens with you attach physically.

By: Olivia, Michael, Tom

AUXILIARY VERBS
Pronunciation: \ȯg-ˈzil-yə-rē, -ˈzil-rē, -ˈzi-lə-\ \ˈvərb\ Pronunciation link
Definition: a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it
Original Sentence: After a hard run, the athletes hit the weight room. ("Hard" functions as the auxiliary verb.)
Published sample sentence:
"What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet."
(Romeo and Juliet, Act II Scene ii)
Memory Tip: Another name for auxiliary verbs is "helping verbs", and the literal meaning of auxiliary is something that acts in a supporting capacity (helping.)

Alex Goebel, Becca Remmes, Kyle Puckett



external image help.jpg






C

COMPOUND WORDS
(noun)
Pronunciation: kom-pound wurdz
Full Definition:A word that contains two or more words
Published Sentence: " There was a small bookcase in the other corner, and Winston has already gravitated toward it." page 97

Original Sentence: Did you see what was on the front page of the newpaper this morning?
Memory Tip: If a word can be broken into two different words, then it is probably a compound word.

external image 1318_l.jpg
by Kelsey, Lauren and Katy



CONNOTATION


Main Entry: con·no·ta·tionPronunciation: \ˌə-ˈtā-shən\ Audio Pronunciation Clip Function: nounDate: 1532
1 a : the suggesting of a meaning by a word apart from the thing it explicitly names or describes b : something suggested by a word or thing : <the connotations of comfort that surrounded that old chair>
2 : the signification of something <that abuse of logic which consists in moving counters about as if they were known entities with a fixed connotation — W. R. Inge>

3 : an essential property or group of properties of a thing named by a term in logic

Original Sentence: The word "pig-headed" has a negative connotation of a stubborn person, whereas the word "strong-willed" means a similar thing but is seen in a much more positive light.
external image 6a00d8341c565553ef011168894845970c-500wi
Memory Tip: When you make a notation you make note of what something means. So a connotation is the way a message comes across to someone.

By Adam, Miriam, and Ian

D

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
(noun)
Pronunciation: duh-mon-struh-tiv aj-ik-tiv
demonstrative
adjective
Full Definition: (this, that, these, those) show whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer.
Published sample sentence:
“That will do for the moment” –O’Brien on pg. 177 of 1984
Original Sample Sentence:
"These apples are awesome"
Memory Tip: demonstrative is singular, and adjectives is plural. The words combined refer to whether the noun is singular or plural.

external image Thisthat.gif
By:Candice Cuppini and Kegan Saajasto

DENOTATION-
definition-1 : an act or process of denoting 2 : meaning; especially : a direct specific meaning as distinct from an implied or associated idea
pronunciation- dē-nō-ˈtā-shən\ Pronunciation
image-dictionary-definition.gif
Published Sentence: "This new movement also led to a derogatory term, “teabaggers,” sometimes not known for its true meaning by the older generations who were forced to apologize for not knowing its denotation. You can look it up in Urban Dictionary." (http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/31/terms-of-the-year/)
Memory Trick: The DEnotation is the correct DEfinition.
By: Blake, Emily, and Ali

DERIVATION
Part of Speech: (Noun)

Pronunciation: \ˌder-ə-ˈvā-shən, ˌde-rə-\

Image: external image 51u--RhPy8L._SL500_AA240_.jpg

Definition: the process of deriving, an origin, the historical origin and developement of a word, process of forming words from other existing words

Published Sentence: You seldom hear a derivation from the Greek pronounced correctly, the accent being generally laid upon the wrong syllable.— Diary in America

Memory Tip: In calculus you find the derivatives of functions to determine specific features about the original function.
By: Taylor, Karthik, and David

E

EUPHONY
Euphony
pronunciation: yoo-fuh-nee
Noun
agreeableness of sound; pleasing effect to the ear, esp. a pleasant sounding or harmonious combination or succession of words.
Published sentence: the majestic euphony of Milton's poetry. (Synopsis of Paradise Lost)
Original Sentence: In the morning, I woke up to the euphony of bacon cooking, it was a good morning.
external image clip_image002.jpg
[[image:file/view/pinkfloyd-album-dark_side_of_the_moon.jpg width="189" height="170"]]
By: Chris Michels

by: Tyler Hines
external image clip_image002.jpg


Memory Tip: Euphony has a Eu in it, like Euphoria, and phony sounds like phone, which makes noise



EUPHEMISM
[yoo-fuh-miz-uh m] -(noun)

Definition:
1. the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.
2. the expression so substituted: “To pass away” is a euphemism for “to die.”

Published Sentence: "Euphemisms such as 'slumber room' . . . abound in the funeral business" (Jessica Mitford).
Original Sentence: Wanting to appear as kind and polite as possible, Bob's boss used the euphemism "let go" instead of telling him "you're fired."

Memory tip: the mis in euphemism reminds me of someone possibly missing the seriousness of a situation when a euphemism is used during harsh conditions like in the picture below

Image:
euphemism.jpg
external image moz-screenshot.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-1.png

INFLECTION
[ ĭn-flěk'-shən ] –noun
Definition: Also, flection.. Grammar.
a. the process or device of adding affixes to or changing the shape of a base to give it a different syntactic function without changing its form class.
c. a single pattern of formation of a paradigm: noun inflection; verb inflection.
d. the change in the shape of a word, generally by affixation, by means of which a change of meaning or relationship to some other word or group of words is indicated.
e. the affix added to produce this change, as the -s in dogs or the -ed in played.
f. the systematic description of such processes in a given language, as in serves from serve, sings from sing, and harder from hard (contrasted with derivation ).

Original Sentence: The change in inflection between the verbs sings and sing indicate the change from a singular subject to a plural subject.


Don't question the picture, French people use tons of inflection.

Memory Tip: You FLEX certain words in your sentences to get the proper inflection.



N

NOUN PHRASE

Part of speech: noun
Pronunciation Link: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/noun-phrase
Definitions:
1) A phrase formed by a noun and all its modifiers and determiners; broadly : any syntactic element (as a clause, clitic, pronoun, or zero element) with a noun's function (as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition)
2)
A phrase that can function as the subject or object of a verb.

Sample Sentences:
1) The blonde girl shouts.
2)
Robin Hood steals from the rich and gives to the poor.

Original Sentence:

In the sentence “I love the old park,” the noun phrase is “the old park” because it functions as the subject of the verb.

nounphrase.png

Memory trick: A noun can be a person, place, or thing, and so can a subject or object of a sentence.

P

PAST PARTICIPLE
Pronunciation: \ˈpast\ \ˈpär-tə-ˌsi-pəl\
Function: noun
Date: 1798
: a participle that typically expresses completed action, that is traditionally one of the principal parts of the verb, and that is traditionally used in English in the formation of perfect tenses in the active voice and of all tenses in the passive voice


Published Sentence:
Original Sentence:
Today in Spanish, we learned about the past participle tense to discuss completed actions.
Image:
external image check.gif
Memory Tip:
Past means it’s a completed action. Also, past participle is two words, just like the past participle tense: had talked, had enjoyed.
-Brad, Kathryn, Zach

PRETERITE
Pronunciation: prět'ər-ĭt

Definition: adj. noting a past action or state
noun. The verb form expressing or describing a past action or condition
Published sentence: Thus in all verbs the preterite and the past participle were the same and ended in -ed. The preterite of steal was stealed, the preterite of think was thinked, and so on throughout the language, all such forms as swam, gave, brought, spoke, taken, etc., being abolished. ( The Principles of Newspeak by George Orwell)
Original Sentence: In spanish class, I learned how to change verbs to the preterite form, so I can now talk in the past tense.
Memory Tip: Preterite and past both begin with the letter "p". Also anyone in Spanish, we talk about the preterite tense alot which is the past tense.
Image:
past.jpg
- Rosie, Gowtami

PRONOUNS
Pronunciation: pro·noun (prō'noun')
Pronunciation
Definitions: (noun)
1.The part of speech that substitutes for nouns or noun phrases and designates persons or things asked for, previously specified, or understood from the context.
2.Any of the words within this part of speech, such as he or whom.
Sample sentence(s): “Please give the present to Karen,” would change to “Please give it to her.”
3. Original sentence: He said that it was the biggest barn in the state.
4.Image: 21344_a_bizarro-pronoun.jpg
5. Memory Tip: Remember that the pronoun is the shortened version of a noun, and pronoun is longer than the word noun: it's opposite


-Jennifer Mercer, Andy Olson

S

SEXUAL ABERRATIONS
(noun)
Pronunciation: sek-shoo-uh ab-uh-rey-shuh n
Definition: Any sexual-behavior deviating from the accepted norm
"In the C vocabulary, which consisted of scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of them." - pg.306, The Principles of Newspeak
Original Sentence: Winston and Julia engaged many times in sexual aberrations in order to rebel against the Party’s belief that sex should only be performed to create a baby.
Memory Tip: One can remember the significance of sexual aberrations by thinking about how aberration sounds similar to abnormal. Therefore, sexual aberrations should be any sexual activity that’s considered abnormal.

Image:
romance-icons.jpg

R

RELATIVES-adjective

Definition-
a. noting or pertaining to a word that introduces a subordinate clause of which it is, or is a part of, the subject or predicate and that refers to an expressed or implied element of the principal clause (the antecedent), as the relative pronoun who in He's the man who saw you or the relative adverb where in This is the house where she was born.
b. noting or pertaining to a relative clause
c. connected or related

Pronunciation- Click here to hear the pronunciation

external image Brain_Actv_Norm_vs_CP.jpg
(the brian is relatively unfunctional when compared to a normal brain)

memory tip: realtives( literarily) refers the the realtionship between the way something generally is and the way it currently is, just like you have a realtionship with your relatives (nonliterally)

Published sentence: The only classes of words that were still allowed to inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the relatives, the demonstrative adjectives, and the auxiliary verbs.

Original Sentence: This is the yard where she used to play. (where is the relative)