The following words are drawn from passage four of the diagnostic AP Exam we experienced the first week of class.
Each entry contains the following seven parts: Word , pronunciation (sound link or phonetic spelling), full definition(s) + samples, sentence from passage, image and memory tip.

Table of Contents


1. a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another.
2. a symbolical narrative
al- uh- gohr- ee
sample sentence
The blindfolded figure with scales is an allegory of justice.
John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Herman Melville's Moby Dick are allegories.
original sentence
Many of the novels we read in A.P. Literature are allegories because of their deep meanings and symbolism.
memory tip
-Abby Hoekstra

definition: In the space which separates; between.
pronunciation: be-'twikst Hear it pronounced.
sample sentence: She was betwixt a rock and a hard place.
original sentence: "...yet there is still a vast difference betwixt the slovenly butchering of a man, and the fineness of a stroke that separates the head from the body, and leaves it standing in its place."
image: moz-screenshot.jpgexternal image 2.jpg
memory tip: Betwixt and between are synonyms, and they sound similar. Betwixt is more fun to say.
-Hannah Lebovitz
definition:understood by or meant for only the select few who have special knowledge or interest; belonging to the select few; private, secret; confidential.
pronunciation: external image thinsp.pngexternal image speaker.gif [es-uh-ter-ik]
sample sentence: Some poetry is full of esoteric allusions.
original sentence:
image:external image support%20group%20cliff.gif
memory tip: the word secret is in esoteric.
-Madhuri Paravastu


1. The quality of lacking taste and refinement.
2. The state or quality of being gross; thickness; corpulence;
coarseness; shamefulness.
sample sentence
It is futile to expect a hungry and squalid population to be anything but violent and gross" (Thomas H. Huxley).
original sentence
I thought that the grossness of the fat man's behavior was completely inappropriate.
memory tip-
-Abby Hoekstra

definition: an obvious and intentional exaggeration; an extravagant statement or figure of speech not meant to be taken literally;
sample sentence: The teacher used a hyperbole to exaggerate his point.
original sentence: Every knew him to be dramatic; he used hyperboles all the time.
image: external image captain-hyperbole.jpg
memory tip: "Hyper" means very or extremely, and hyperbole is the extreme of something. I thought the image was pretty clever. "Captain Hyperbole: The Greatest Superhero Ever!"
-XiXi Tian
definition:1)as a noun it means an abusive expression or speech. 2) as an adjective it means of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse
sample sentence: He had expected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal.
original sentence: After Mark had spewed out his invective words, Max went outside and cried.
image: new_depressed_man.jpg
memory tip: Invective has a harsh ring to it when said out loud, and think of that it means abusive language.
- Cheryl Liang
definition:a tricky deceitful fellow
sample sentence:He that cheats another is a knave; but he that cheats himself is a fool. — Karl G. Maeser (1828-1901)
original sentence: Rick believed that Sam was a knave because he was such an opportunist.
image:moz-screenshot.jpgmoz-screenshot-1.jpg re_tricky_man.jpg
memory tip: Knave rhymes with cave and caves are dark places so think of knave and of a dark person.
- Cheryl Liang
definition:one who commits an offense against the law
sample sentence: "Meanwhile, lest anything should really be amiss, or any malefactor seek to escape by the back, you and the boy must go round the corner with a pair of good sticks and take your post at the laboratory door". -Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Stevenson, Robert Louis
original sentence: The judge delivered the verdict to the solemn malefactor.
memory tip: In Spanish, mal means bad, so think that this word means something bad when you see malefactor.
- Cheryl Liang


definition:outrageously disgraceful or shameful.
pronunciation:external image thinsp.pngexternal image speaker.gif [uh-proh-bree-uhexternal image thinsp.pngs]
sample sentence: sally was approbrious when she fell down the stairs.
original sentence:
image:external image activities-rocksy-fall.jpg
memory tip:opprobrious sounds like " in- appropriate", so when someone is disgraceful, they are acting inappropriately.
- Madhuri Paravastu

definition: good-humored ridicule; banter
pronunciation: rey-l uh -ree Pronunciation
sample sentence: "I moved from one knot of people to another, surrounded by a kind of envious respect because of Sophie's interest in me, although subjected to a certain mordant raillery from some of this witty company.
I moved from one knot of people to another, surrounded by a kind of envious respect because of Sophie's interest in me, although subjected to a certain mordant raillery from some of this witty company."
original sentence: Her raillery of herself in her conversation made the tension ease between the two on their first date.

external image Jester%201.jpg
external image Jester%201.jpg

memory tip: the verb rail means to speak bitterly against or violently complain about, but raillery as a noun is a milder form of it.
- Rebekah Vaughan

ROGUE - Aaron Michaels
-defintion: a dishonest, knavish person; scoundrel (noun) or no longer obedient, belonging, or accepted and hence not controllable or answerable; deviating, renegade (adj.)
-pronounciation: Link Here
-sample sentence: I wouldn't buy a car from a rogue like him.
-original sentence: The rogue cop listened to no one but himself.
memory tip: When thinking of "rogue" think "renegade". Someone that is not controllable.

SLOVENLY - Aaron Michaels
-defintion: untidy or unclean in appearance or habits.(adj) in an untidy, careless, or slipshod manner (adverb)
-pronounciation: Link Here
-sample sentence: Thomas is slovenly. He cleans his room by simply throwing everything into his closet.
-original sentence: I disliked Eric's slovenly work on papers. I have to have everything neat and tidy.
memory tip: When thinking of slovenly the sound "slov" sound a lot like "slob".

SYLLOGISM - Aaron Michaels
-defintion: an extremely subtle, sophisticated, or deceptive argument. deductive reasoning
-pronounciation: Link Here
-sample sentence: I used deductive thinking and existing statements to create a syllogism.
-original sentence: I used Aristotle's famous syllogism to relate A & C.I knew A and B were related and B and C were related which then means A and C are related.
memory tip: Simply think of Aristotle's Syllogism. This syllogism is deductive thinking.